Tag Archives: CSS

The jQuery UI CSS Framework – Part 2: How To Create Widget-style Boxes

This is the second post in a series on the jQuery UI CSS Framework.    Here’s the first one.

Today I’ll show you how to create a nice looking box that has sort of a widget appearance to it. The jQuery UI components already provide similar functionality. For example, the Dialog Box is quite pretty, and you can easily make it modal or not.  But frequently we want to make a box for content somewhere on a page- much like the sorts of boxes that appear on WordPress blogs, Drupal sites or iGoogle, for example.  The jQuery UI CSS Framework comes with selectors that make this easy. Also, remember that one of the benefits of the UI framework is that you can easily change the theme of your site, without having to touch any markup or CSS – you simply change the path of the external theme css file to point to another directory. Again, the examples I’ve made use the Redmond theme.  Here’s the markup for a simple box with a nice heading:

<div id="mybox" class="ui-widget ui-widget-content ui-corner-all" style="margin-top:20px; width:300px; height: 150px;">
  <h3 class="ui-widget-header">Weather Widget</h3>
  <p><span class="ui-icon ui-icon-comment" style="margin: 0 2px 0 2px; float:left;"></span> Tomorrow it will be light during the day, and dark at night.</p>

It’s rendered (in FireFox) like this:


As you can see, the markup is pretty simple.  I’ve given the container  div an arbirtrary width and height. You might want to specify  a width, but omit the height s that the div just stretches with your content.  Let’s look at the classes used for the div, the heading (h3) and the image respectively:

The div tag:    The class  .ui-widget  ensures we use  a consistent font family and size for the content inside it. It also applies the 1.1em rule. Combined with the css selector :    body {font-size: 62.5%} this initially yields a font size of 11px at typical screen resolutions. This whole 1.1em thing can be a bit of a problem, as I’ve discussed in other posts. For example, if I embed another container using the same selectors, my text comes out at 12.1px (1.1x 1.1em).  You can inspect your element with Chris Pederick’s Web Developer plugin for FireFox to see bad behavior at work. For example, see below:

Font size for second container text is now 12.1px, not 11px.

Font size for second container text is now 12.1px, not 11px.

I ran into this in an app where I had tabs embedded inside tabs. The jQuery UI code applies the .ui-widget class to tabbed content containers behind the scenes, so I ended up with oversized text compared to the rest of my page.

The class of .ui-widget-content applies the border, along with some padding. the .ui-corner-all selector gives us rounded corners (in FireFox and Chrome, not IE).

The h3 tag: This uses the class  .ui-widget-header. This is pretty self explanatory. It applies a nice background on white text (based on the Redmond theme) to our heading. You can use this class on other tags, too. For example, I use it on tr tags for my table heading rows.

The image (span) tag: (.ui-icon and .ui-icon-comment).  I just threw this in as a bonus for this lesson. jQuery UI is very clever at handling icons. Instead of having a whole bunch of images, you basically have one big image sliced into squares, with each icon class being a small window over the appropriate square. This is a variation on the famous Sliding Doors sprite concept at A List Apart.  It saves different image resources having to be loaded, to optimize performance. It also allows the icons to be themed easily, because you don’t have to change the path for an image, as you would for a typical HTML img tag. You can also apply a hover state to any icon in the set, simply by setting the class to .ui-state-highlight.  We’ll cover this in more detail in a later article.

In this case, I used a span tag to display the comment icon. This could also be an anchor tag, or a li tag, or whatever.   The .ui-icon class gives us a 16 x 16 pixel area blocked out for whatever icon we choose. The .ui-icon-comment class displays a comment icon (similarly, .ui-icon-trash shows a trash can, etc. etc.). You can see the entire set of available icons at the Themeroller page.  The default setting for .ui-icon is display:block, which forces a line break, which is why I had to add an inline style setting of “float: left” to get it to appear on the same line as my text.

That’s it!  the next article will show you how to style pretty forms elements with the framework.

The jQuery UI CSS Framework – Part 1: Intro and How To Style a Button

This is the first in a series of articles on the jQuery UI CSS Framework.. This is a powerful suite of CSS selectors that you can use to build web applications with a consistent UI. The main jQuery UI demo page shows you a list of UI widgets (which are still somewhat limited in scope compared to ExtJS, for example), but it doesn’t do a very good job on selling you on the benefits of designing other UI components, or components of those widgets, using the UI CSS framework. In this article I explain the framework, its benefits and weaknesses, and show you one simple example of styling a button.

What is the jQuery UI CSS Framework?

It is a set of CSS selectors that let you design your web pages to conform to the jQuery UI widgets standards. Quote:

The jQuery UI CSS Framework provide semantic presentation classes to indicate the role of an element within a widget such as a header, content area, or clickable region. These are applied consistently across all widgets so a clickable tab, accordian or button will all have the same “ui-state-default” class applied to indicate that it is clickable.

(from the jQuery UI Theming documentation page).

Benefits of the jQuery UI CSS Framework

Here are the top benefits I think the framework has to offer:

  • It handles difficult design issues for you. For example, you can apply rounded corners to buttons and links easily, just by adding a class of  “ui-corner-all” to your element.
  • It gives you a consistent look and feel to your page design elements
  • You can use the jQuery UI widgets (such as tabs, dialog boxes, accordions, etc. in conjunction with your own custom elements (text, tables, buttons, boxes, icons, etc.) and get the same look and feel for both.
  • The UI is skinnable. You can use Themeroller to roll your own theme, or select an existing theme. For example, I’m using the ‘Redmond’  theme in an application I’m currently building. You can see the Gallery of themes by clicking the ‘Gallery’ tab in the top left corner.  The gallery also shows you what the standard jQuery UI widgets look like. Unfortunately it doesn’t show you other common design elements- but that’s why I’m blogging!
  • You can easily switch to another theme just by changing a single path reference in your applications. You can see this at work by using the Themeswitcher widget, which is easy to embed in your page (just remember you will be connecting to the jqueryui.com website when you use this widget).

Downsides to the Framework

The framework is not without its weaknesses, some of which, over time, I’m sure will be addressed. The major ones I see are:

  • Poor documentation of the purpose behind each selector.  For example:

    .ui-helper-clearfix: Applies float wrapping properties to parent elements

    . What exactly does this mean? And where would you use it? I think I’ve figured it out, by trial and error, but couldn’t the authors write something more meaningful?

  • Reliance on em as the unit of measure rather than pixel. I realize there are lots of advantages to this, but it has its drawbacks too- most notably, when you nest some UI elements you can end up with different font-sizes, due to the use of 1.1em in some cases (this is a multiplier, so in my app I have 1em applied, which results in a font size of 11px, then I have a tab with content. The text in that content comes out at 12.1px (1.1em). If you don’t understand em versus px, try this article. Also, see my post on using 62.5% on a body CSS selector..
  • Incomplete framework. Most notably, tables are not addressed. (I use tables to present database information in business apps). Tables fall outside the regular cascade rules, it seems, so the font size for table content is screwed up. I suggested a simple fix of adding the word ‘table’ to a selector, but that got dismissed as too specific. So whenever you use a table in conjunction with the Framework CSS, you’ll have to add a customized CSS rule, such as this one:
    .ui-widget table { font-family: Lucida Grande, Lucida Sans, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 1em; }. I could rant about this, and may do in another post… Other selectors are missing, too, such as alternating row colors for table zebra striping. Perhaps they will add this to the Themeroller app, as well as to the CSS Framework API specifications.
  • Sometimes you need other CSS to make things look like they do in the online examples. I ran across this with the Dialog example that shows a form. The form looks really beautiful, but it actually uses several additional selectors besides the ones included in the Framework CSS.  I don’t really think there’s much of a technical alternative here, but it’s something you need to be aware of.

How To Learn About The Framework

I learn about how to use the framework by using the following strategies:

  • Read the official CSS Framework documentation.
  • Try out the widget examples and do a ‘View Generated Source’ or ‘Inspect Element’ with Firebug. This shows you how the UI Widget developers utilized the CSS framework. For example, I noticed that the Dialog widget shows really nice looking Ok and  Cancel buttons, so I inspected them to see which CSS rules had been used. (See my example below).
  • Follow the jQuery UI forum and read books. There’s a new edition of a book on jQuery UI 1.7 that recently (Nov 2009) came out.

Example Using the Framework To Style a Button

Here’s a simple example of using the CSS selectors to style a button. I’m using the Redmond theme here.

I assume you know how to install the jQuery UI library and CSS.  You can grab it here.

Here’s the code:

    body {font-size: 62.5%}
<button id="cancel" type="button"  class="ui-state-default ui-corner-all">Cancel</button>

Here’s what it looks like:

jQuery UI button in FireFox

jQuery UI button in FireFox

jQuery UI button in Chrome

jQuery UI button in Chrome

jQuery UI button in IE

jQuery UI button in IE

As you can see, FireFox and Chrome each do a nice job of rendering the rounded corners, while IE 8 still doesn’t support this feature (at least, not with CSS).

Explanation of The CSS

I’m using two classes on the button element. This is a common coding technique when using the jQuery UI CSS framework. It results in combining the various selectors of each style in an accumulative manner. The ui-state-default class “Applies “clickable default” container styles to an element and its child text, links, and icons.” For example, we could apply this to a link and get essentially the same effect. This class includes a background image that provides the button coloring. As I mentioned earlier, if you change the theme used in your app, the button will appear in the color of that theme.

The ui-corner-all selector applies a radius (rounded corner) to each of the four corners of the button border. That’s it!

Next Article

In the next article I will show you how to style a div to create a nice looking box with a heading in it.

How to correct font size problem with tables in jQuery UI widgets

I just recently used jQuery UI tabs in an application. Within a couple of the tabs I used tables for content (let’s not have a religious debate about using tables for layout, please). Anyway, the font size came out much bigger than for text in a paragraph, for example- in FireFox. I looked at the custom.css file (generated by themeroller, called jquery-ui-1.7.2.custom.css) and found this line:

.ui-widget input, .ui-widget select, .ui-widget textarea, .ui-widget button { font-family: Lucida Grande, Lucida Sans, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 1em; }

This line is designed to handle form input types, to make sure the font size matches text in other tags such as paragraphs, etc. However, text in tables also needs to have these rules applied. To fix the problem, I copied this line and added table as a descendant selector, like so:

.ui-widget table { font-family: Lucida Grande, Lucida Sans, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 1em; }

(You could also just add .ui-widget table to the overall selector).

Problem solved.

You might also be interested in reading this earlier post on How to scale the jQuery UI font size just for just the ui widgets.

My Favorite FireFox Plugins for Web Development

  • Firebug – debug your applications. An absolute must. Best features:
    • Debugger – step through, over, etc.
    • Console log for monitoring AJAX interactions -shows parms sent, data returned, round-trip time.

  • Web Developer – fantastic CSS diagnostic support. Best features:
    • View generated source – important if your script modifies the original DOM of your page
    • Display Element Information – shows all the properties of an element in a convenient popup. To use, press Ctrl+Shift+F or select menu Information/Display Element Information
    • Edit CSS – lets you edit the CSS selectors in real-time, and shows you the results – almost as you type
  • MeasureIt. Lets you find the height and width of any element or area of the page, in pixels. Helps diagnose CSS issues, for example, when you use combinations of margin, width, padding and border attributes.
  • Codeburner from Sitepoint, one of my favorite online journals (www.sitepoint.com). Integrates with Firebug to provide comprehensive cross-reference information on HTML and CSS. Best feature:
    • Browser compatibility tables

CSS and Tables – Margins don't work on rows or cells (tr or td)

Tables do not conform to the normal CSS box model as W3C explains .

A consequence of this is that you cannot use the margin property for cells or rows. Citing the above page: “Internal table elements generate rectangular boxes with content and borders. Cells have padding as well. Internal table elements do not have margins. (my emphasis). So, something like this:

tr.spaceme { margin-top:15px; }

does nothing.

I wanted to have a table with a ‘heading’ row followed by details, another heading row, more details, etc. So the solution is to style an empty row using the padding and/or border properties. Suppose we want to have 15 pixels of white space between the top of the next heading row. Here’s some example markup:


tr.gap {padding: 15px; }


<tr class="gap"><td colspan="2">&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr><td>Customer: 1</td><td>Name: Acme</td></tr>
<tr><td>Order: foo1</td><td> Item: bar1 </td></tr>
<tr><td>Order: foo2</td><td> Item: bar2 </td></tr>
<tr class="gap"><td colspan="2">&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr><td>Customer: 1</td><td>Name: Bolts Inc.</td></tr>
<tr><td>Order: foo3</td><td> Item: bar3 </td></tr>
<tr><td>Order: foo4</td><td> Item: bar4 </td></tr>

I don’t really like this, because it requires an unnecessary table row for each heading. My example requires a colspan, too, as I suspect in most cases tables like these will have more than one column for the headings and/or details. Anyway, I’m posting this to remind myself of this quirk in the CSS box model, as I’m bound to forget it next time I have to render tables like this.

How to Style the Trigger Button Image of a jQuery Datehandler

The jQuery UI datepicker object has lots of CSS style settings you can customize. Most of these apply to the calendar that appears, though. In a recent project I was using the standard image shown on the datepicker examples page for the trigger button. This appears when you set the  button image properties, like this:

buttonImage: 'images/calendar.gif',  buttonImageOnly: true

However, the image didn’t line up vertically with my input field, and it was squished too close to the input field’s right border.

Here’s the problem:

Misand poorly spaced datepicker trigger image

Misaligned and poorly spaced datepicker trigger image

So I needed to style it.  I couldn’t find anything in the documentation or the style sheets that told me how to do this, so I looked at the generated HTML with FireFox debugger and discovered the button uses a class of   ui-datepicker-trigger .  To correct the problem, I created the style directly in the page, following the included jQuery style sheets. Here’s the selector:

/* This is the style for the trigger icon. The margin-bottom value causes the icon to shift down to center it. */
.ui-datepicker-trigger {
                               margin-top: 8px;
                               margin-bottom: -3px;

The margin-left value put some white space between the right edge of the input field and the image, while the margin-bottom value of -3 shifted the icon down slightly. The margin-top value caused both the input field and the icon to shift down 8 pixels, providing white space between the datepicker and the stuff above it. Here’s the result:

After ui-datepicker-trigger style applied

After ui-datepicker-trigger style applied

How to scale the jQuery UI font size for just the UI widgets

This post applies to jQuery UI 1.6rc6 (the preview for jQuery 1.3+), but it probably also works with earlier versions.

If you use themeroller, or simply download the jQuery UI standard code package from the jQuery UI web site, the default font size is set to 1.1em, which, generally speaking, is way too large for most people’s tastes.  I’ve seen a  less than helpful suggestion on how to adjust this, on the examples pages:

<body style="font-size: 62.5%;">

This is pretty bogus, because text inside input boxes doesn’t rescale (at least, not in FireFox,) and it obviously applies to the entire page, when in fact you may want it to just apply to the UI widgets only. You can adjust the scale very easily, though, for all widgets, by  editing the  ui.theme.css file (in the ‘theme’ directory). Just change the font-size property for the .ui-widget selector. The default is 1.1em. I changed mine to 11px.  Like this:

.ui-widget { font-family: Trebuchet MS, Tahoma, Verdana,
 Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 11px; }

There’s a second line, with more specific selectors:  .ui-widget input, select, textarea and button respectively. You will probably want to change that line too.